Sunday, September 07, 2008

Middle East Drought?

The following words come to mind as I think of the Middle East -- oil, Iraq, war, Palestine, Israel, and desert. I know, I know, many of the words on my list are mere impressions of media-induced messages, but one word on my list is pretty realistic -- desert. The Middle East is an arid region known the world-over for sand, camels, heat, and more sand.

So when I tell you in a few moments that many countries in the Middle East are facing severe drought conditions this year, you may not be too surprised.

Yet contrary to my word list the Middle East isn't entirely desert. Among the sand and heat, the region hosts fertile valleys and forests fed by one of two main rivers -- the Tigris or Euphrates.

This place was once so fruitful it has been called "the fertile crescent," "the cradle of civilization," and "the birthplace of agriculture." Today, crops exported from the region include wheat, dates, olives, pistachios, raisins, eggplant, hazelnuts, and apricots. >So when I tell you again that many countries in the Middle East are facing serious drought conditions this year, you may be a bit more dismayed.

Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Cyprus, Iran and Iraq (to name a few) have each been dealing with decreased rainfall, reduced water storage, irrigation water shortages, and in some cases, declared drought.

Drought in northeastern Syria over the past two years has devastated wheat production in the region. In 2008 Syria was forced to import wheat for the first time in fifteen years to compensate. Crops were also wiped out in Turkey this year after drought affected 35 out of 81 provinces. Iran is another nation importing extra wheat this season after a 20 percent decline in annual yield.

Palestine and Israel have been in a "regional drought" for over half a decade. Palestinians in the West Bank, enduring especially difficult circumstances, are without water for hours or days at a time this summer. Israel controls 90 percent of the water distribution system for the West Bank, but claims to be unable to provide additional water to those in the West Bank.

Meanwhile, King Abdullah in Jordan has secured an Emergency Water Supply plan for next summer in case rains are less than predicted over winter. And, of course, the island of Cyprus is dealing with prolonged drought. Turkey is sending water by tankers to the Turkish half of the island, but the Greek half of the island refuses to accept water from Turkey. They are receiving water by tankers from Greece.

A drought has been declared in Iraq after significantly less than the annual, average rainfall of six inches. Some say it is the worst drought in ten years. Both the Tigris and Euphrates flow through Iraq in less quantities from a lack of rainfall and dams constructed in Turkey and Syria. Barley and wheat yields, in this country, are expected to be reduced by half this year.

Widespread drought in the Middle East means that many individuals are enduring severe hardship with little watery relief. Often forced to relocate or consume muddy, polluted water unfit for human consumption, people in this region have to test the limit of life with minimal water. Also, simultaneous drought in regions such as the Middle East and Australia further influences already soaring grain prices on the world market. In fact wheat prices have risen by 40 percent over the last several months alone.

Source - AlterNet


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